The boom in UK food banks

Demand for food banks in the UK is ‘booming’ with over 500,000 people forced to use them to stave off hunger and destitution. Half of those helped are children. They are among the victims of sweeping austerity which is cutting welfare, services and programs precisely when they are needed most.

The following has been republished with kind permission from Gareth Hill

Food bank manager in Bournemouth blames welfare reform for rising demand

The manager of Bournemouth Food Bank has blamed welfare reform and changes to Job Seekers Allowance for a rising need for food handouts.

Debbie Bramley said that the charity she runs in Charminster is struggling to keep up with demand as George Osborne outlines *planned spending cuts for 2015.

Bournemouth East MP, Conservative Tobias Ellwood, did not respond to a request to discuss accusations that government policy is forcing people to rely on food banks.

The Ticking Time Bomb of Child Poverty and Austerity

The UK is the sixth richest country in the world and yet more than one in four children is growing up in poverty today.

  • Child poverty damages childhoods. Growing up in poverty means being cold, going hungry, not owning belongings that others consider essential and not being able to join in activities with friends. It also impacts on health, educational outcomes and the overall experience of childhood.
  • Child poverty destroys life chances. Leaving school with few qualifications translates into lower earnings over the course of a working life. Poorer childhood health results in more complicated health histories over the course of a lifetime, again influencing earnings as well as overall life quality.
  • Child poverty imposes costs on broader society. Governments forgo prospective revenues and commit themselves to providing services in the future if they fail to address child poverty now.

Cross-national studies and evidence gathered over time show us that child poverty is not a natural phenomenon. Instead it is a political phenomenon – the product of choices and actions made by government and society.

Child Poverty damages children’s experiences of childhood and harms their future life chances. Research by Save the Children earlier this year highlights:

  • well over half of parents in poverty (61%) say they have cut back on food and over a quarter (26%) say they have skipped meals in the past year.
  • around 1 in 5 parents in poverty (19%) say their children have to go without new shoes when they need them.
  • a large number of children in poverty say they are missing out on things that many other children take for granted, such as going on school trips (19%) and having a warm coat in winter (14%).
  • only 1 in 5 parents in poverty (20%) say they have not had to borrow money to pay for essentials, such as food and clothes, in the past year.

A recent study by the Institute of Fiscal Studies (IFS) estimates that 800,000 more children will fall into poverty by 2020. That would be a rise in the child poverty rate from 19.9% to 24.4%. This will be the biggest increase in child poverty since the 1980’s, and would completely reverse the improvements made by during the last decade when 900,000 children were removed from poverty. The IFS figures are for children living in absolute poverty. Millions more children live in relative poverty.

As the govt’s spending cuts continue, so more and more families are at real risk of slipping into poverty, either from a reduction in tax credits, child benefit, the decision to uprate benefits in line with the consumer prices index rather than the retail prices index (which tends to show a higher annual inflation rate), the time limiting of employment and support allowance or from the loss of their jobs or stagnating wages. Poverty affects every aspect of a child’s life. 47% of children with asthma are from the poorest 10% of families, poor children are 5 times less likely to have access to a safe outdoor play area, 85% of children living in damp flats have breathing problems.

Austerity measures may also affect children in more subtle ways. There is another type of poverty, one that is more difficult to define and quantify, that of emotional poverty. As the unemployment rate soars, many households are experiencing joblessness for the first time. Children are far from immune from the negative effects of austerity. The additional stress levels, lack of funds and general loss of confidence experienced by parents and family members must impact upon children also. It has been proven that unemployment can become cyclical for generations of families. These children are feeling both the direct and indirect outcomes of unemployment and austerity measures likely affecting their own participation in the workplace in future years.

Children’s charity Unicef has published a report highlighting that child poverty rates within the UK are set to increase significantly, due to government spending cuts. There is recognition that child poverty is one of the most crucial indicators for measuring successful social cohesion, a marker of wellbeing and future prosperity of any given nation. Long-term effects of child poverty include: issues in education, employment, mental and physical health problems and difficulties with social interaction. The standard of living encountered during a person’s childhood is recognized as being instrumental in shaping their future.

Unicef warns that during times of economic recession, children can “drop off the policy agenda” in the scramble to effect immediate change, all planning for future generations is perceived as of secondary importance. This is highly problematic, not only because future planning is negated in favour of a short term outlook, but because a child’s current living situation is under escalated risk during times of financial crisis. Children, as one of the most vulnerable groups of people, cannot be left out of the equation especially in times of financial recession.

This government has proposed changes to child benefit; however, major inconsistencies regarding financial eligibility led to strong opposition and initial proposals were re-drafted highlighting the governments’ incompetence in making basic calculations. The Child Poverty Action Group has already warned that the proposed cuts to child benefit will have an adverse effect on children’s wellbeing. They questioned the moral issue of using children as a battlefield for austerity.

Austerity measures are proving a complete failure, exacerbating the problems of unemployment and thereby increasing levels of child poverty. State-direction job creation, along with relevant supporting policies, is the route to success in lowering the rate of child poverty in the UK. The ‘Lost Generation’ will not just be those currently leaving school to no jobs and no higher and further education places, but the generation before them who are too young to be aware of their disappearing future. To put the brakes on this depressing picture we need to end the madness of austerity Britain. The Children’s Society have said: “It would be a grave injustice if we allowed the burden of the current economic turmoil to fall on the shoulders of disadvantaged children.”

Child Poverty in Britain, £10 Billion To Be Cut From Welfare (RT news report Oct 2012)

End Child Poverty, a coalition of more than 150 charities, welfare organisations, social justice groups and unions has published a report and interactive map detailing the level of child poverty in each constituency, local authority and ward in the UK. The campaign predicts that, as benefits start to fall in real terms later this year, the proportion of children living in poverty will increase significantly.

Commenting on the figures, Enver Solomon, Chair of the End Child Poverty campaign said:

“The child poverty map reveals the depth and breadth of child poverty across the country showing the gross levels of inequality that children face in every region. Far too many children whose parents are struggling to make a living have to go hungry and miss out on the essentials of a decent childhood that all young people should be entitled to.

The huge disparities that exist across the country have become more entrenched and are now an enduring reality as many more children are set to become trapped in long term poverty and disadvantage.

Local authorities have to deal with reduced budgets but they have critical decisions to make. We’re calling on authorities to prioritise low income families in the decisions they make about local welfare spending, including spending on the new council tax benefit, and on protecting families hit by the bedroom tax. This week we have written to local authority leaders in the local authorities with the most child poverty, asking them what they will do to tackle child poverty in their local area.”

The government must also closely examine its current strategy for reducing poverty and consider what more it could do to ensure millions of children’s lives are not blighted by the corrosive impact that poverty has on their daily existence.’’

cpag dorset

Within the local Boroughs in our area, there is a very contrasting picture from ward to ward. In Bournemouth, 33% of children within Kinson South are living in poverty whilst in Littledown and Iford the figure is 8%. In the Poole Town ward, within Alderney it is 30% whilst in Broadstone it is below 5%. Click here for the full percentage breakdown for all wards within Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch. Excel spreadsheets detailing percentage figures for all South West local authorities can be viewed and downloaded by clicking here.

From April 2013, local authorities will have significantly increased discretion over the allocation of financial support for families, although in circumstances in which this support has been dramatically reduced. Local Authorities will be responsible for:

  • Providing support with the cost of essential items such as replacing cookers or fridges for families on a low income, as the Social Fund is replaced by schemes run by local authorities.
  • Deciding who receives help with paying Council Tax, as Council Tax Benefit is replaced with local assistance schemes. The Resolution Foundation has found that low income families will see their council tax rise by up to £600 a year as a result of this change.
  • Deciding who should receive support with housing costs. April 2013 will see the introduction of the £500 a week benefit cap and the bedroom tax for families who live in social housing if the government believes they have a spare bedroom.
  • Local Authorities have been allocated control over Discretionary Housing Payments, which they can use to help make up rent shortfalls for a small proportion of families affected by these changes.

End Child Poverty believes that Local Authorities should take a strategic decision to protect the poorest families with children when allocating these resources. Local Authorities have not imposed these cuts but, with the removal of ringfencing, they will have a significant influence over how they affect local residents.

If you would like to become involved in BPACC campaigns about this issue or any other, please Contact Us by email to info@bpacc.co.uk

Sources:
End Child Poverty Report – Child Poverty Map of the UK
Child Poverty in the UK – CPAG
Child poverty: a generation sacrificed to austerity – Counterfire
Austerity increases child poverty, report confirms – ISG
UK’s Poorest Families hit Hardest by Recession and Austerity – The Real News
Poverty map shows how cuts in benefits will hurt children – Guardian

Child Poverty Facts and Figures – CPAG

The following has been reproduced with the kind permission of Child Poverty Action Group

There are 3.6 million children living in poverty in the UK today. That’s 27 per cent of children, or more than one in four. (Households Below Average Income, An analysis of the income distribution 1994/95 – 2010/11, Tables 4.1tr and 4.3tr. Department for Work and Pensions, 2012.)

There are even more serious concentrations of child poverty at a local level: in 100 local wards, for example, between 50 and 70 per cent of children are growing up in poverty. (Child Poverty Map of the UK, End Child Poverty, March 2011).

Work does not provide a guaranteed route out of poverty in the UK. Almost two-thirds (62 per cent) of children growing up in poverty live in a household where at least one member works. (Households Below Average Income, An analysis of the income distribution 1994/95 – 2010/11, Table 4.3db. Department for Work and Pensions, 2012.)

People are poor for many reasons. But explanations which put poverty down to drug and alcohol dependency, family breakdown, poor parenting, or a culture of worklessness are not supported by the facts. (For example, G Hay and L Bauld, Population estimates of problematic drug users in England who access DWP benefits, Department for Work and Pensions, 2008, suggest that 6.6 per cent of the total number of benefit claimants in England were problem drug users. While drug misuse may prove to be a key reason this group of people finds it hard to escape poverty, it clearly has no explanatory power for the other 93.4 per cent of claimants.)

Child poverty blights childhoods. Growing up in poverty means being cold, going hungry, not being able to join in activities with friends. For example, 62 per cent of families in the bottom income quintile would like, but cannot afford, to take their children on holiday for one week a year. (Households Below Average Income, An analysis of the income distribution 1994/95 – 2010/11, Table 4.7 db. Department for Work and Pensions, 2012.)

Child poverty has long-lasting effects. By 16, children receiving free school meals achieve 1.7 grades lower at GCSE than their wealthier peers.6 Leaving school with fewer qualifications translates into lower earnings over the course of a working life. (GCSE and Equivalent Attainment by Pupil Characteristics in England 2009/10, Department for Education 2011.)

Poverty is also related to more complicated health histories over the course of a lifetime, again influencing earnings as well as the overall quality – and indeed length – of life. Professionals live, on average, eight years longer than unskilled workers. (Life expectancy at birth and at the age of 65 by local areas in the UK, 2004-6 and 2008-10, Office of National Statistics, October 2011.)

Child poverty imposes costs on broader society – estimated to be at least £25 billion a year. Governments forgo prospective revenues as well as commit themselves to providing services in the future if they fail to address child poverty in the here and now. (D Hirsch, Estimating the costs of child poverty, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2008)

Child poverty reduced dramatically between 1998/9-2010/12 when 1.1 million children were lifted out of poverty (BHC). This reduction is credited in large part to measures that increased the levels of lone parents working, as well as real and often significant increases in the level of benefits paid to families with children. (Households Below Average Income, An analysis of the income distribution 1994/95 – 2010/11, Department for Work and Pensions, 2012.)

Under current government policies, child poverty is projected to rise from 2012/13 with an expected 300,000 more children living in poverty by 2015/16.10 This upward trend is expected to continue with 4.2 million children projected to be living in poverty by 2020. (M Brewer, J Browne and R Joyce, Child and working age poverty from 2010 to 2020, Institute for Fiscal Studies, October 2011.)

For more information, please visit the following pages on the Child Poverty Action Group website:

What is poverty
Measuring poverty
The UK poverty line
Measuring poverty – alternative approaches
What causes poverty
The impact of poverty
How can we end child poverty in the UK

http://www.cpag.org.uk/

Child Poverty Action group http://www.cpag.org.uk/

Food poverty in breadline Britain

There has been rapid expansion in food banks over the past two years triggered by growing numbers of people unable to feed themselves or their families as a result of rising living costs, shrinking incomes and welfare benefit cuts. This ever increasing need for food banks is a damning indictment of this government’s failed economic approach.

The boom in Britain’s food banks reflects a number of worrying and complicated trends. As well as rising unemployment, more people are seeing their pay frozen and hours cut at work. For the past couple of years, charities have been warning that a shift to a less generous way of uprating benefits in line with inflation, combined with rising food and fuel prices, would make life more difficult for people claiming benefits. Then there is the start of a new, harsher benefits regime, a result of which will be more claimants having their payments sanctioned – cut or stopped entirely – if they miss appointments. At the same time, the state system of a social fund and crisis loans is being wound down, so emergency cash payments from the welfare system for those deemed to be in extreme need are now exceptionally difficult to procure.

The government spent £230m on crisis loans in 2009-10. But under the Welfare Reform Act, responsibility for administering this spending will be devolved to 150 English councils. Local authorities are preparing to invest in charity-run food banks to cope with an expected deluge in demand for crisis help from low income families hit by welfare cuts, raising the spectre of depression-era US “breadlines”. However they will be sharing a pot of money set at 2005 budget levels – which could be less than half the 2009-10 figure, so would obviously seem to be inadequate at best and this money will not be ring fenced – meaning that councils can spend some or all of it on other services if they wish.

Cuts next year to the social fund, which provides emergency aid to vulnerable people, mean that from April 2013 many councils will no longer be able to provide cash help to applicants. Instead they will offer “in kind” support such as referring clients to food banks and issuing electronic food vouchers.

It is very unlikely that plans to refer crisis loan applicants to food banks will solve the problems, let alone the root cause. Experts say the experience of food poverty in the US and Canada, where charity food assistance has become a significant element of the welfare system, shows that while food banks are popular with volunteers and, however well meaning their aims and intentions are, they can be inefficient, unreliable and fail to address the underlying causes of food poverty, such as low pay.

Liz Dowler, professor of food and social policy at the University of Warwick, said: “Despite their apparent ‘win-win’ appeal to some councils, food banks conceal realities of poverty and hunger. They let the state off the hook from their obligation to ensure all have the means to live, and from showing political leadership to grapple creatively with poverty.”

Everything is pointing towards the fact that this country is on the precipice of a food poverty crisis. A spokesman for the Child Poverty Action Group said: “It’s clear that this is an early-warning indicator of how bad things are starting to get for poorer families and how bad things are going to get in future. This should be setting alarm bells ringing for the government.”

Alas, those in power, seem to have placed mufflers on those bells with government ministers regarding food banks as exemplars of the “big society” approach to social problems and many Conservative-run local authorities welcoming the move to provide local crisis assistance, which ministers say go “to the heart of localism and the big society agenda.”

The government’s complacency towards food poverty will most probably become more exasperating by inflation hitting its lowest level in nearly three years in September. Experts predict that soaring energy bills and rising food and petrol costs will send inflation back up again in the coming months, ramping up the pressure on households. And the situation is further compounded by the damage wreaked by the dismal summer of 2012 on UK harvests that will inevitably push food prices up further. In these austere times, with food banks feeding the hungry, that is going to hurt. Prof Richard Tiffin, director of the Centre for Food Security at University of Reading. “It should be a major warning that climate change is increasingly having a global impact on the food supply. If the problems in Russia, the UK and the US this year were combined with a failure of the Indian monsoon, we could see a major global food crisis that would have an enormous impact on food prices and badly affect poor people in the UK and around the world.”

Trussell Trust is a charity that provides three days’ worth of emergency food to people in the UK who are at crisis point and currently receive government funding. Trussell said it had been approached by the Welsh government and a number of local authorities in London to discuss “deliverable and practical” emergency food assistance part-funded by the social fund.

The trust has said it does not object to taking state funding in principle but its food banks were already helping thousands of people referred to them by councils and welfare advisors after being turned down for crisis loans. Chris Mould, director of Trussell Trust, said the move could be risky for the charity, which was not designed to provide large scale welfare assistance. He was also concerned that the public would be less likely to give food if the trust was seen to be delivering a service regarded as the responsibility of the state.

The trust have also warned that the string of energy price hikes announced by providers recently could mean more people turning to it for help. Chris Mould said: “Every day we meet parents who are skipping meals to feed their children or even considering stealing to stop their children going to bed hungry. It is shocking that there is such a great need for food banks in 21st-century Britain, but the need is growing.”

Along with Trussell Trust there are many other charities and volunteer services that provide food bank services. Some have seen a 100% increase in the numbers of people coming to them for a free or cheap, meal. Four out of 10 charities said their budgets had been slashed as a result of funding cuts. Around a third said these cuts have made it harder for them to provide meals, and one in six said they may have to abandon providing food altogether.

FareShare, a charity that supplies millions of free meals to charities, food banks and breakfast clubs using food donated by supermarkets, said it could not keep pace with demand. They said the food it distributed in 2011-12 contributed to more than 8.6m meals, benefiting an average 36,500 people a day via 720 organisations that deal with people in food poverty. Its long-term plans are to triple the numbers of people and charities it supplies.

Lindsay Boswell, chief executive of FareShare said: “Every piece of evidence we have got is that demand will only increase over time as more people lose their jobs and living costs go up. Even if the economy improves there will be a considerable lag before that trickles through to individuals who use the services the charities support. We are forecasting that we will see growth for at least the next five years.”

The Salvation Army, whose churches issue food parcels on an informal basis, said its biggest distribution point, in Keighley, West Yorkshire, was so inundated this year it had to temporarily restrict food parcels to people referred by local charities and health professionals.

Along with charity shops and payday loans companies, food banks have become one of recession Britain’s high growth sectors. Originally set up to support homeless individuals, food banks report they increasingly serve families hit by benefit cuts or unemployment, and low-income working households who can’t make ends meet.

Food banks are thriving not just in Britain’s most deprived areas but in some of its wealthiest areas, like Poole. Our seaside town boasts some of Britain’s most expensive properties but in April 2012 a local food bank supplied food parcels to nearly 300 people – more than twice as many as in April 2010, with the extra demand driven by low income working families. Poole food bank manager Lorraine Russell said that: “Before, the primary reason (for needing food parcels) was benefit cuts or delays, but now that’s been overtaken by people on low incomes. We used to get very few low-income people, but now that has taken over.”

Even though food banks can provide a little low-level nutrition in a crisis for three days, they were never designed to cope with months of malnutrition due to inadequate levels of income or benefits. No guidance about financial need will be issued by the Department for Communities and Local Government, whose ministers, along with every member of the cabinet, have abdicated the primary moral duty of a civilised government for ensuring their poorest fellow citizens have enough income to buy a healthy diet. This damages the economy; it creates massive costs for the health service and lost time at work. Nutritionists frequently remind us that Britain was better fed from 1940 to 1945, a time of war and far greater economic crisis than the present.

Through international treaties, the UK government is already committed to ensure an adequate standard of living. They have a responsibility to provide resources so people have a minimum threshold of food, clothing, shelter and social security. However, with all the funding cuts to public services and the Welfare State, it is abundantly clear that they have no intention of fulfilling this obligation. So we, the people, have to draw a line, stand up against the food poverty injustice – along with all the other issues – and demand an end to the cuts.

KEEP ON KEEPING ON

RESIST – PROTEST – STRIKE

Sources:
Where in the UK do people rely most heavily on food banks? – Guardian
Breadline Britain: councils fund food banks to plug holes in welfare state – Guardian
Demand for food parcels explodes as welfare cuts and falling pay hit home – Guardian
Foodbank: our biggest client group now is people on low incomes – False Economy
Food banks are a symptom of failure – Guardian
Food banks: a life on handouts
Charity food banks serving record numbers – Guardian
Rising food prices are climate change’s first tangible bite into UK lives – Guardian
Lobster bisque at the soup kitchen: how a charity is redistributing food – Guardian
House of Commons – Oral Answers to Questions – Work and Pensions – Monday 23 January 2012 – Hansard

Number of UK poor receiving emergency food aid

From The GuardianNumber of UK poor receiving emergency food aid doubles

The number of the UK’s poor and destitute receiving emergency food aid has almost doubled in the past six months, the country’s largest organiser of food banks has reported.

Figures from the Trussell Trust, which operates 172 food banks and has a further 91 banks under development nationwide, show that from April to September nearly 110,000 adults and children were referred for emergency help by professionals such as the police, social workers and job centre advisors and GPs.

The trust, which operates a controlled voucher scheme to track referrals, said that in the whole of the last financial year they fed 128,000 people. Based on demand over the last six months, they expect that number to rise to more than 200,000 between 2012-13.

In the trust’s south-west region, one in 120 children have been fed with food packages during the last six months, while in Wales the current figure stands at one in 130.

A breakdown of the figures also shows that while less than one percent of those being referred are pensioners, there appeared to be a prevalence of young teenagers and adults taking up emergency food aid.

In the latest set of figures, 14,500 people, 16% of all those being referred, were aged 16-24, a group that makes up around 11% of the UK population in total.

The trust’s executive chairman, Chris Mould, said that while they weren’t reaching as many old people as they should be, travel and rent increases and the dire state of the youth employment market had left many of the UK’s young adults in a desperate state with little financial resilience.

“When you’ve got people who are on the margin of just making it and there’s another price rise, another change in their outgoings, they can’t negotiate [the change]… something gives, and it is going to be the food.”

The trust’s own indicators show that the largest block of people were being left unable to feed themselves because of delays or a change in circumstances to their benefit claims.

Currently 45% of professionals referring families and adults for food packages cited troubles and delays with the benefits system, a figure that was up from around 40% on the year before and had more than doubled since the recession began in 2009.

Mould said the rise was “significant”. “In the first half of this year that’s another six or seven thousand people who are being helped at food banks because of problems relating to the timely availability of benefits,” he said.

Mould said that other reasons for hunger included debt and delayed wages; circumstances arising out of domestic violence and sickness, but that the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) who are responsible for the benefits system needed to ask why so many people were being left hungry by bureaucratic failure; increased use of benefit sanctions; and the government’s reform measures, which could require benefit claimants to switch to different types of benefits.

“The period in which people are left with no recourse to money and therefore an inability to get food on the table is longer,” Mould said.

“The DWP should be deeply interested in what’s driving and generating these crises. They really should be asking the question, is there anything we can do to resolve this and to reduce the prevalence, the occasions per month when this happens.”

In response to the figures, a DWP spokesperson cited the fact that 80% of benefit claims were turned around in 16 days and said that reforms were making the welfare system more effective. “We recognise the welfare system we inherited is broken, trapping on benefits the very people it was designed to help. Our reforms will transform the lives of some of the poorest families in society by making work pay and lifting thousands out of poverty,” a department spokesperson said.

“Jobcentre plus processes thousands of benefit payments each day and we also pay crisis loans to help people who have emergency costs or benefit delays. Where appropriate we also refer people to the Trussell Trust following their request for us to do so,” they added.

Hungry children rely on teacher handouts and food banks

A third of teachers admit to taking food into schools to give to the hungriest children

Although breakfast is arguably the most important meal of the day, more and more pupils are coming into school hungry as the recession, unemployment and benefit cuts take hold. Teachers have been forced to take the problem into their own hands with nearly a third admitting to bringing in food for the pupils who have missed out on breakfast. In addition, the food charity FareShare has revealed that more schools than ever are relying on them to feed hungry children at breakfast time –an increase of 57% in the last year.

The average breakfast club costs just £4,000 to run per year, however cuts to school budgets are leaving a financial gap which many are struggling to fill. At least 77 breakfast clubs nationally are now reliant on rely on food banks to keep their daily breakfast clubs going as budget cuts have forced hundreds to close.

The Royal College of GPs, the National Association of Head Teachers, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health have recently called on the government to provide free breakfasts to children in receipt of free school meals. They believe that doing so would help to reduce the health problems linked with poverty and improve academic achievement.